Moreover, Tade and Aliyu (2011) submit that cyber fraud has literally become a way of life for many undergraduates in Nigerian universities. Different forms of resistance exist, adapted to, This chapter will be presenting a model of reduction and/or prevention of cybercrime victimization among user individuals. It hampers the control of information superhighway, and specifically enables the emergence of cybercrime. Cybercrime is evolving every single day and even if new laws are, created to tackle a particular crime, it can be circumvented in a matter of weeks. In Nigeria, the introduction of these three major inventions; the Computers, the Internet and the Mobile telephones gave rise to a huge outbreak of cybercrimes. Policing computer crime is a knowledge-intensive challenge because of the innovative aspect of many kinds of computer crime. Almost all victims of cyberstalkers are. However, the Internet has given spam a much uglier face. claim to boost their self-esteem at minimum cost. Cybercrime, its Adherent Negative Effects on Nigerian Youths and the Society at Large: Possible Solutions, Socioeconomic lifestyles of the yahoo-boys: A study of perceptions of university students in Nigeria, Pathways and Motivations for Cyber Fraud Involvement among Female Undergraduates of Selected Universities in South-West Nigeria, The Dangers and Threats that Digital Users Face in Cyberspace, FIBER OPTICS TECHNOLOGY AND CYBERCRIMES IN CALABAR METROPOLIS, NIGERIA, Seeing Beyond the Surface: Understanding and Tracking Fraudulent Cyber Activities. Cyber fraud was seen by the students to be a source of income for meeting their own personal and relatives' financial needs. These categories of victims believe they are, meeting legitimate business associates only to be deceived by the variants. Even in the real world, crimes like rape, murder or theft need not, necessarily be separate. crime.” Examples of computer crime include computer intrusions, denial of service attacks, viruses, and worms. The frequent occurrence of these cases and how people fall victims instigated the quest to find out if becoming a victim of cybercrime or not depends on the level of awareness on cybercrime activities. It is even alarming to know that 80% of, perpetrators in Nigeria are students in various Higher Institutions who maybe were distracted by, some hidden factors. Computer crime is an overwhelming problem worldwide. However, the other side of the story is that cyberspace is also a suitable environment for various types of criminal activity. Now, irritation has become a veritable menace. This paper mainly focuses on the various types of cyber crime like crimes They are almost definitely being led to legal and financial entanglements out of which only, the perpetrator will make profits. characteristics of the criminals in order to understand the motivations behind the crime and subsequently develop and deploy crime prevention strategies; it is also important to understand victims i.e the characteristics of the users of computer systems in order to understand the way these users fall victim to cybercrime. 1030(a)(4); • threatening to damage a government computer, a bank computer, or a computer (2004): Proprietary Software Protection and Copyright issues in contemporary, Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. Y, reply any e-mail from unknown persons, they should learn to report spam mails to the e-mail server, or any know cybercrime research sites. Spamming is usually random and untargeted but it can be, targeted to either a group of people, for example, advertisements that cater for a particular group of. trailer << /Size 828 /Info 761 0 R /Root 800 0 R /Prev 441358 /ID[<03ef3a503624ed853afb1a17fc8436f9><03ef3a503624ed853afb1a17fc8436f9>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 800 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 760 0 R /Outlines 629 0 R >> endobj 826 0 obj << /S 1814 /O 1931 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 827 0 R >> stream In addition to these are the emergence and prevalence of phishing scams that use social engineering tacticsto obtain online access codes such as credit card number, ATM pin numbers, bank account details, social security number and other personal information[22]. This examination provides the most basic evidence for the satisfactoriness of the predictions. This publication is the second edition of “Prosecuting Computer Crimes” Nigeria. Microfilm. They facilitate business, communication and generally affect the quality of daily life. The reason is, that, the taxation system in most African countries is ineffective and people grow up to believe. ��Ӡ�G���a��b>NR�5��)�޽��0ʞY���B2rv ����jbn�;d���^���� u^���8z&;�� �v��N�+w0���܀�PYh!o$/ \}������� ________________________________________________________________________, Digital technologies have become an integral part of modern society. Cyber-dependent crimes fall broadly into two main categories: • illicit intrusions into computer networks (for example, hacking); and • the disruption or downgrading of computer functionality and network space Much past research on crime has been confounded by its focus on these politico-legal rather than behavioral definitions. Different nations have adopted different strategies to contend with crime depending on their nature and extent. Ridiculous products such as “cheap, effective breast enlar, etc. They queue up in cyber cafes to send “419 mails.” (Nigerian word for. �$"���Tf�FA(�8S�J�?%�D���`�����)H��t��N �i�z��������ަE8�Ș�B�.���Uߌ�[~���? During the, period of this research, I interviewed some cyber criminals in four cyber cafes in Nigeria and what I, was told was this “yahoo-yahoo business is all about deceipt, if you are gullible, then you become, my mahi..” On a more obvious level, phishers are best able to fool such people into buying their, scams or being drawn into legal traps. Crime remains elusive and ever strives to hide itself in the face of development. The aim of this paper is to gather and analyze information about various types of criminal activity in a digital environment. It leaves a negative social and economic consequence. 0000000931 00000 n Spammers are classified into two major faces; The hucksters are characterized by a slow turnaround from harvest to first message (typically at, least 1 month), a large number of message being sent to each harvested spamtrapped addresses, and, typical product based spam (i.e spam selling an actual product to be shipped or downloaded even if, The fraudsters are characterized by an almost immediate turnaround from harvest to first message. He lectures, Longe, O.B. Greedy and desperate people will always fall to, this level of scam and follow the instructions in the emails which most others are likely to treat as, junk. crime and to be resourceful in investigating new types of crime. We posited that popular e-mail clients are deficient in the provision of effective mechanisms that can aid users in identifying fraud mails and protect them against phishing attacks. 1. But it is worth knowing that Africans and indeed, Nigerians are yet to develop their technical knowledge to accommodate and perpetrate this kind of, There are so many varieties of crimes that are committed on the internet daily, some are directed to, the computer while others are directed to the computer users. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This definition can extend to traditional crimes that are committed with the machine, such as counterfeiting money, but it also includes more tech-savvy crimes, such as phishing or logic bombs. Preemptive action can only be taken by the law if they, know who is likely to commit crime as well as who is likely to be targeted. More importantly, this range of criminalized activity has to be, extended to organized crime and internal corruption within the law enforcement itself. This is known as Internet piracy or, The term “warez” describes commercial software, movies and games that has been modified by a, cracker and made freely available to the public on the Internet. It has brought an array of new crime activities and actors and, consequently, a series of new challenges in the fight against this new threat (Picard, 2009). 0000002767 00000 n One thing is certain, it is that a nation with high incidence of crime cannot grow or develop. UN should, make it mandatory for countries affected by cybercrimes to update their laws to include cybercrimes, and other internet (high-tech) related misconducts. While the potential exists to use computer and cyber crimes as acts of war, many common forms of computer crime are much more mun-dane. goals for countries in the world, the same should be done in the areas of cybercrime. I was curios and decided to open one of the letters one day and see, what the content really was; you can guess what the content of the letter was! harvested email addresses with the comma character. ���(��y��^����R]!�`@wY�����,Y*,�ɑ�q2���qU�Tb�t�rr�B$��tyOI�-Ɲmz� ��������� ����,�������_0s2k�����H�EL�D �J*�Q%V���r��ȃ���i�u�2}�{gr1ێ�� �T���.��6����Z���FuY�E��%8d|��RwF=k� j��k{,��6�ǜ�@�3R�9%��D�@"d����|��qP1d�Wo��`���bx�a�}�x�!�(�ɓ!o�z��{ �]��2. and the individual may not in anyway be blame. The antics of the 'yahoo yahoo boys', also known as 'yahoo yahoo millionaires' has raised a new generation of lazy youths, who spend hours on the internet perfecting their game and literally killing their prey (Nkanga, 2008); cyber crime is becoming one of the fastest growing-internet (fraudulent? A, would stop at nothing to download “free software, musicals, movie” or related items. Computer crime—illegal acts in which computers are the primary tool—costs the world economy many billions of dollars annually. There are a lot of people in the world today whose knowledge of the Net is just enough to chat with, their friends and maybe get information from here and there. Spammers send multiple e-mail messages to harvested email, addresses and the gullible fall prey to the contents of the email. Cybercrime may also be referred to as computer crime. 0000062532 00000 n In this process, they use e-mail addresses harvesting software like: advanced e-mail extractor pro, extreme e-mail. 0000003128 00000 n Cyber crime is a social crime that is increasing worldwide day by day. Although we conclude this report with several recommendations to strengthen society’s ability to fight computer-related crime, no 0000004220 00000 n cǼ��5��D�(��h�~ �.%��e �����%���˦8'�GzYx��h1�^�}.��rmh-���� �2�:U~���R[���.�/a�S���@)�+(� �5�,�-�W�z��˸�}$O�؜����][d(>���.�ǻ]T�&2��r\m&*8�bW)$b�Y* �e�*��:��F9x7��OI�>�էD�Ohn䛌U�(�=c. The Importance of Victimology in Criminal Profiling, Sylvester, Linn (2001): The Importance of Victimology in Criminal Profiling. 0000019997 00000 n Findings revealed that, though the majority of the respondents (59.5%) described the financial strengths of Nigerian university students involved in cyber crime as huge, many of them however, perceived this group of students to be extravagant. http://isuisse.ifrance.com/emmaf/base/impvic.html. There are others who are attracted to advertisements related to, improving one’s physical image. ��Xa�T0 � D.)--State University of New York at Albany, School of Criminal Justice, 1980. Hence, the computer will be looked at as either a target or tool for simplicity’s sake. "���$����M/��NsD]����T�d���Xz��u�C�� g;�桒�� ���Q���S=��=Z9� �qn@ Although cyber crime is not an exclusive preserve of Nigeria as it is a global phenomenon, yet the current unprecedented and massive involvement of Nigerians, especially, the university students in it, makes it a serious problem that requires urgent redress. It adopted the exploratory cum cross-sectional research design. So is cybercrime, which has continued to grow by leaps and bounds, just as the, government frantically keeps on fighting financial crimes. Computer crime is an act performed by a knowledgeable computer user, sometimes referred to as a hacker that illegally browses or steals a company's or individual's private information. Developing a Model to Reduce and/or Prevent Cybercrime Victimization among the User Individuals, Bases para un futuro derecho penal internacional del medio ambiente. 0000019974 00000 n Aghatise E. Joseph is a final year (HND II) Computer Science student of Auchi Polytechnic, Edo State, Nigeria, the founder of the group “JUST iT TEAM” a campus based IT group. Available online at: �y9��.�8-e�Vn��e�Lʄrh`�[�-��s��Kބf4���'��T${u�DsȄrD�h�A6Yh�k��0�^#��1��̀k�i u�*���0Q���O[�Ԇ�hJN@�|q"X���[�ێJa�$�$�ze^ ����^f �����E�I&��C��81�%-�a,^@��iL�aU���pN1���9��+�YJe ��i�a��F�@]$Vx��7A#�����]-ɕ�0p?�� �]������1P���o�B�>��g�%�7�W7Z ; ��*�� �&&YU�nt�E,3� ����sKk2�����ʀ�ؚ�z2��UDN�0�T>� r�P&�w $�9��-�A��mK�tW�����tv��/xs��kꦢX�u����W��|�H���G��[�2����S���,���>;��� ��⦔٢��F�~��'W�n��\4�^��x�f�N}��k\�HG��L�(�M�쿿�����r�0�M�w�Ե6+Mׁ�;^���`�\��?o�&P��2i�{ȁ��=@c�X;�@k�I�r�eD�&PyFI���D��?�I;�^’>�� The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), in its manual on computer crime, defines such crime as "any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer technology for their perpetration, investigation, or prosecution." 799 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 801 /H [ 1007 1353 ] /L 457468 /E 62763 /N 151 /T 441369 >> endobj xref 799 29 0000000016 00000 n Scams, theft, and the likes have, existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The impression is that much more determination and commitment are needed, as well as adequate education of digital technology users to recognize and prevent these threats from the online environment. 0000002337 00000 n This software allows the criminals to separate their. The malaise of electronic spam mail that solicit illicit partnership using bogus business proposals (popularly called 419 mails) remained unabated on the internet despite concerted efforts. Cybercrime has continued to dent the, image of Nigeria abroad. In Nigeria, the varieties of applications offered by the internet such as electronic mailing, chat systems and Instant messaging (IM) often serve as veritable grounds for carrying out fraudulent activities by the youths, and unlike the traditional criminal groups, both gender are functionally involved in it [7]. of development. �i���!w��@����s��SS���-����ā2 � �w�1��,���6�'��t]��J ���=�ȳ�#/Ie�O��p`m'4�P��r�+�be��O]#�L���(zˠ�!��r�1�sQ7@�&��s� �8GpK㔠����BY�������I��8��e�ǥ�� �[��y֕�r=�r��d���з�7PRd)�'M�2�!��Jy֥ #&�@*��{�L��\g8���Q݃f�yظ��:���n� ��B֔v'���5HZ�f����/����߈>2��z�,�2h�_@�Ǧ�ƾc�|�҉� q��r+���E�`ߗ+�q�Ҽ��� [:��O�a��d¨��,@��rm~u������hM�n �K�������x6H�+���o�'ʈ|���ݏ@��*��2_m[�k�f�xs� Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. To this end a number of common rules that could serve to harmonize national laws or even to be part of an International Criminal Statute of crimes against the environment which fall under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, are proposed,. All criminals – at least, the intelligent ones – will only attack those who exhibit certain vulnerabilities. (M.Sc Thesis) Unpublished. The same criminal has simply been, given a tool which increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all the harder to trace and, These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. ��)9��H�T���N��o^�. These, are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. That’, reminds me, I remember an instance during my work in one of the most populous cyber café in, system, when I monitored her activities, I discovered she was just an unskilled and inexperienced, lady who was deceived by an American guy to always go naked for him and show herself in a web, There are also people who fulfill none of these categories but are just unlucky enough to be at the, wrong place at the wrong time, in cyberspace that is. They are ignorant of the fact that most, people they meet online are criminals who hide under the shades of the internet to perpetrate, different crimes. Social learning theory was employed as conceptual framework. Separation of E-Commerce and Computer Crime Models 6. Crime and criminality have been associated with man since his fall. Cyber criminals can make great material and emotional damage to digital users. The, Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) of Nigeria since its establishment has been on, top of the game of fighting crimes. crimes in their primary form – as offences ‘against’computers and networks. Second, the evidence is based upon the specific attributes of areas as perceived by the criminal respondents, that is, the extent to which perceptions of hard mark, familiarity, or other attributes are systematically related to the numbers of known crimes by the sample in the different geographic study areas. it as victims, it just depends on which of the two is the main target. I have identified four levels of cybercrime victims. ... Cybercrime does not have to have information systems as its target, by definition, it involves attacks that simply use the information system as a tool. In Russia, economic criminality is widespread among the Executives. Understanding the perpetrators of internet crimes and their mode of operation is a basis for any meaningful effort towards stemming these crimes. United Nations and other. 0000043111 00000 n Denial-of-Service attack. In Nigeria, youths involved in cyber crime, generally known as the yahoo-boys, have been widely recognized as maintaining a distinctive lifestyle that confers a unique and/or a notorious identity on them in the society. Fraudsters. [��(xhN֢B�*� =&�1��ı֬c�զj��;(ǎ���wD�\�Q$`"��H�k\2 SC�ΝF�� ���g�d[��2�C���3�\m�_�� �ģζ1�s�����搖��t���Mg��E�M5F���t��pݡ�r<9�t ��m;��� ���@��㒱�;�u���1J�2R�ZM6�X]g-��I+v��b�,?w����Jz�/�.M��hK2ʥCW�"V�!��gڤ�l`s��tv��%�^�`;����ݳVŎp�O8֢OdV�cɴFs#�3Lv(W' �Gu��P�����[�r��y�������݀;LdSy>L ֥��p��[zh��5�� F�Cd�QA �U{�h�����yd".�w 5,2�o���؇5���a�M�]�����?�B� �,�q�USJ&��Q�cf�� f5�3:���c�l� 5J�n��2��+���1�XY!�6�h9r�"ʑ��CD9r�"��6� ��z���c��1�&_��J�o:�(o���u?���ԁ�d�m� s Includes bibliographical references (leaves 197-204). Results showed that female undergraduates got initiated into cyber fraud by their male relatives and associates. There are numerous crimes of, this nature committed daily on the internet. being scammed as they are more trusting and helpful towards others. As a result, only those provisions relating to computer crime were considered at this meeting. In an age where dependence on electronic transaction is on the increase, the web security community will have to devise more pragmatic measures to make the cyberspace safe from these demeaning ills. For instance, the government of Nigeria under the leadership of, President Olusegun Obasanjo, has gone a long way to fighting cybercrimes and offline crimes. First, the geographic distribution of known offenses by the criminal sample will be examined by analyzing the numbers of offenses falling within or proximate to, areas of predicted high or low, Executive's strategy in Russia in order to avoid repression by the government : from Brejnev to Gorbachev. All content in this area was uploaded by Joseph Aghatise on Sep 05, 2014, Crime and criminality have been associated with man since his fall. 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